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The common man led a very comfortable and contented life. The country was rich. Nature was bounteous and people were adventurous with economic prosperity and industrial progress flourishing hand in hand. Sculpture and architecture, literature and fine arts were the unique heritage of the ancient Karnataka about which every Kannadiga is certainly proud today. The countless monuments that show their heads through innumerable ruins extending all over the State ranging from Belgaum, Bijapur, Bidar and Gulbarga in the North to the Southern tip of the State, reveal the past glory. Even though the State has its territorial limits in the present boundary all round, 1 am sure the cultural barrier V extends far beyond the present artificial set-up.

Penukonda, Hosur, Dharma- puri, Coimbatore, Kasargod, Nilgiries and many other places are culturally well-knit with the Kannada region in spite of the influence of the other sister languages. Another diflacuhy for a contemporary author is to write with detachment and with a sense of perspective on subjects such as these which deal also with the recent events. As it is there is a danger to honest history especially when a writer is careful to guard against parochialism and natural likes and dislikes.

The Indian mental make up has still to get out of certain adolescent reflexes. There ate instances where politicians especially those who advocate totalitarian views in the garb of democracy, force the historians to adopt the same standards as theirs in assessing history. But then the record of the man will become completely untrue. Just as Trotsky docs not find a place in Russian history, many of the early fighters of freedom in India do not have a place at the hands of the ruling party of the day. The writers should be allowed to play a vital role of interpreting life in Us continuity in tbe flawing stream of time, and therefore, to make their views fully self-assertive, they must keep clear of Government patronage.

In spite of that, I make myself bold to say that this narration does not cover several minor ruling dynasties in different parts that saw the light of the day and faded within no time. This is the land Karnataka, the land of rivers and water- falls, hills and valleys, sculpture and architecture and literature and fine-arts. It is the land of great roasters and gallant monarebs, great kingdoms and glorious achievements.

This is the Land— Karnataka Page 3 2. The Kadambas and the Gangas 41 5. The Pallavas and the Chalukyas.. The Great Cholas in Power.. The Hoysala and the Yadava Rulers.. The Birth of a Great Empire.. The Minor Rulers in Karnataka The Mysore Royal Family The Mabrattas and the Local Chiefs The Nayaks of Ikkeri and Others.. Language, Literature, Fine Arts.. The most alluring aspect of the Karnataka forests is its water- falls, acknowledged to be the loveliest in the world.

The physical features of the land has helped to establish the character of the region, as a land of varying scenic beauty with plenty of resources in water and water-power. It includes the rich and ferule lands of the Kaveri and the Krishna valleys and the thick forest areas of the heavy rainfall regions of the Malnad and the coastal areas The average rainfall per year is as heavy as three-hundred inches at Agumbe while in some parts like Btjapur, Raichur and Bellary districts, it is only ten inches a year. The Kaveri, the Krishna and the Tungahhadra form the major river basins of the State.

The western and south western parts of Karnataka are covered by dense forests which in a great measure retain their primeval character. Bciiary and. Nature has been prodigal in endowing much wealth and beauty on some places. Along the southern stretches of the Western Ghats one sees a vast panorama at once awesome and magnificent. The area all along consists of steep precipices and perilous twists and an observer will not fail to note the changing vistas of dramatic beauty at every stage of his journey.

On one side of the road one finds the bottomless ravines and on the other side lofty hills soaring up to the skies and it is on these hills and valleys that coffee, cardamom and other wet crops are grown, Belgaum district is picturesque with its hills and valleys and rivers and tanks. The western part of the Malaprabba and the Ghataprabba strips forms a high rocky ridge culminating in the Maoikeri hill in the eastern end of Gokak. The earliest traceable Belgaum rock was made by the stratified schist. These schist beds were later forced up, broken and their charac- ter changed by volcanic eruptions.

At Gokak there is the beautiful Ghataprabha Falls. North Kanara district is picturesque, hilly and thickly wooded. The coast is varied Nvilb rocky islands and capes From Honnawar the coast stretches south, high and broken by many little capes. The north-western ghats end at Kalinadi and the Malayavanta stretches south of Sbaravati. The Tadri, Gangavalli and the other numerous rivers of this district arc often heavily flooded during the monsoon. The entire coast is palm fringed with nartow river mouths and one can enjoy the sight of furious waves at the sea-side dashing against the rocky walls ashore.

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Karwar is beyond description. It is one of the most beautiful places on the coast with a fine beach and magnificent scenery. The rocks in Bijapur vary in texture from the grained crysialUae to ahally, coarse and loose grained. The sand-itoncs arc clucfly found al Badami The river Bhima separates the district from Sholapur and the Malaprabha separates It in the south.

On the west, it is bound by Toregal, Mudhol and Jarokhandi. The Ghatapra- bha and Malaprabha hills arc the two main ranges. The Krishna rises from the Mahabaleshwara hills on the eastern flank of the Sahyadrl. Bijapur or Vijayapura is a city of victory, full of architectural munificence and beauty. Badami and Pattadkal are world famous on account of their excellent temples. Bidar district consists of a long range of laterite hills forming a plateau which terminates in the north above the valley of Manjra Oiherwlse the district is almost flat with a slight slope towards the cast. Manjra is the only perennial river.

All other streams run dry in summer. This district is noted for its healthy climate. Artificial Irrigation is found not quite necessary in this area as there are numerous perennial springs Some of the eternal springs provide pleasant beauty spots Kalyan was one of the most beautiful cities of the medieaval times. The range of bills that enters north of Gulbarga district from Osmanabad on the west continues in a south easterly direction for about sixty miles through the Mabagaon and Gbincholi taluks which are billy.

The remaining taluks are almost flat The principal river is the Bhima, a tributary of the Krishna. Gulbarga has not much of forest area. The geological formations of Gulbarga are the Archeon gneiss eastward, the Bhima series about the centre and the Deccan trap m the north and the west The rarnfall is little in Gulbarga causing occasional draughts The city of Gulbarga is known for its famous mosque buiU ao. Across the whole breadth of Dharwar district is hlack soil, broken by isolated and stone peaks about feet in height.

The country is rocky, broken by ranges and blocks of stony bush covered hills. Though fostered by the soft climate, the people are tough and heroic and tragic memories remain and stir the roots of people's emotion. Hubli in Dharwar is the hub of the industrial and commercial activity. The Raichur district is occupied by Archcon gneiss.

There are some bands of crystalline schists known as Dharwar series. Rainfall is very little here and there is not much of forest area. The district is situated in metamorphic and trap region and its soil is reddish and latcrite. A range of hills traverses Yadgir taluk from the west to the east and enters Seram and Kodangal taluks of Gulbarga.

The Krishna is the most important river and the Tungabhadra forms the southern border. The Bhima joins the Krishna near Raichur. Bellary district is almost without trees It consists of black cotton soil dotted here and there by the rocky hills so charac- teristic of he Deccan The Mallapanagudde range is 3, feet high and it is the highest. In the south of Harapanahalli town there are groups of hilts continuing with Kudligi, Gudekot, Alur and Adoni hilts.

There are a lot of building stones and jasper, and pot stones arc very common. This district also suffers for want of seasonal rains and the most of the area is dry in all times Hampi, the historic city of pilgrimage, is here and it is still the centre of Indian architecture. The soil of South Kanara is red and gravely on high grounds and sandy near the sea. In valleys the soil is well- adapted for rice cultivation.

Several waterfalls, both big and small of the high slopes are bid by the magnificent forests. The hill panorama of this district is exceptionally grand and it would be no exaggeration to say that the views from the Agumbe Ghat and the Kuduremukba range of hills are second to none in the world. A journey amidst the Charmadi Ghat valley is simply enchanting. The uhole district is picturesque and Nature has endowed it very generously.

Bhadravati on the banl. The Baba- budan range of hills ofTcrs a delightful view from this locality. Chikmagalur is a highland region, with an enormous ridge, 6, feet above the sea level. The most alluring spot in the Bababudan range of hills is Kemmanagundi, 4, feet high. This is flanked by beautiful hedges and woodlands and spaTl.

Chitaldurg is a region of rugged hills and imposing fort- resses. The town lies at the foot of the rambling pile of hills which are crowned by impressive fortiheations A casual visitor will see little of natural beauty here. The lands ate plain stretching far and wide with shrubs, patches of jungles here and there, scattered gravels and hard stones.

Vaitheeswaran Koil

Kolar is wellknown as the land of gold. It is just a portion of the Deccan plateau but is not quite uninteresting. There are hills of considerable charm and streams flow according to the rhythm of the plains. The soil in some places is gravelled but in many places it is soft and fertile.

The Kolor Gold Fields, containing some of the deepest mines in the world, with their underground reefs, arc indeed an example which shows how man is struggling to unearth the potential wealth lurking in the bosom of the Mother Earth. Kamanadurg, Nidugal and some other hills are above 3, feet in height above the sea level. Even to the west, there are hills from Kibbanahalli to Chikanayakanahalli. Yamanagalli and Shimsa arc its two rivers. In the summer the scarcity of water is acutely felt.

Many of these Tumkur hills are held sacred from ancient times. The Hassan area enjoys the most salubrious climate. The scenery in the southern part of the district with its soft grass lands and woods has been compared by Englishmen visiting these parts, to the richest park scenery in England, Apart from the wooded hills of the northern parts, the round about area of the Gomateshwara hills is guarded by beautiful Ghandragiri and Indragiri hills.

Hard black stones are very common here. Kodagu district is situated amidst imposing mountainous terrain of the Western Ghats The Kaveri is the biggest river and the Laxmanatbirtba Is its biggest tributary. Tadiandamol is the highest peak 7, feet high above the sea level, and other peaks arc Pushpagiri, Brahmaglri and the Soma hills. Enveloped by a ring of steep bills and valleys, the district consists of black soil and provides scenes of grandeur and unsurpassed beauty from every point.

Mysore district is as interesting as Mysore city itself. The Chamundy hill has developed into one of the many beauty spots with an elegant park on its top. The Brindavan gardens is easily one of the beauty spots of India. Talkad and Sriranga- patna, encircled by the Kaveri, provide natural charm. Tirumakudlu and Narasipur are situated at the confluence of the rivers Kaveri and Kapini, On the other side is Nanjangud town surrounded by its plantations and with a softly flowing river by its side.

This district is mostly a plain tract. Adjacent to Mysore at a distance of nearly twelve miles is the world famous Krishnarajasagar, the second biggest artificial lake in the world. Bangalore, the metropolis of the State, is a fast developing city in South India. The Nandi hills in Bangalore district is a small but a wellknown summer resort. On the hill and in the centre of the sloping plateau is the beautiful Amrit Sarovar, the Lake of Nectar, with health-giving properties.

Melukote is a pcaccful-looking town perched on the Yadugiri hills In the bosom of the hill there is the Mot! Talab or the Pearl Lake known for its blue and placid waters. With a moderate elevation of 3, feet above sea level and moderate rainfall, Bangalore city has an equable tempera- ture and a salubrious climate. The city is noted for its gardens. Next in beauty to the Brindavan gardens of Mysore, there is the botanical garden in Bangalore, popularly known as LalBagh or red garden.

This name was given by Hyder Ali about years ago for the wealth of red roses that it produced. It is said that be, as a lover of nature, created this pleasure garden as a royal orchard. The western range of mountains are clothed in thick forests which contrasts strongly with the life and scenery found on the plains and river valleys. Karnataka State has a scries of uplands with an average height of 2, feet above sea level.

Many of the hills and rivers have contributed a great deal to the history of the land. The distribution of the population in any agricultural country is often the result of climatic conditions. More than seventy percent of the population depend on agriculture. About inches ol average rainfall in the west coast is a common feature. Rice is cultivated on a large scale. Sugar-cane, wheat, coffee etc. These tanks are priceless legacy of an ancient past when the kings and nobles censidtted it their religious duty to provide every little town with dependable source of water supply.

Its huge hydro electric station was the first enterprise of its kind in India. Thundering waterfalls break the stillness of the region and down below in the gorge the white walls of the generating stations shimmer in the light of the sun. The twin waterfalls, Gaganacbukki and Barachukki, are the most alluring spots near the island The Gaganachukki has a peculiar beauty of its own. Rushing precipitately over the face of the huge abyss, the waters of the Kaveri hurtles into the pool below to a depth of feet. The volume of water discharged by it is very much greater and surrounding scenic beauty is a feast to the eyes.

Hurrying northwards, through wild and narrow gorges, the two streams unite again on the north cast of the Island and continue their course to the east. It is at Saligram the river dashes down the crags to take a grand leap of 60 to 80 feet crashing on the rocks below, from precipitous heights at two most exciting spots in Sivasamudram where it exhibits at two falls.

A tiny streamlet of the hill, a torrential rivulet with beautiful cascades meandering river disappearing into jungles, a big reservoir enclosed by gigantic dams, a huge waterfall with dreadful leaps, picturesque con- fluences — ail have given place to a broad, tranquil river moving steadily with frail basket-boats crossing it from bank to bank. There are numerous smaller falls and among them the Tadri Falls is very interesting.

The next is the Gangavalli Falls near Magod village. Along the Western Ghats alt over, there are many smaller falls and these are deflaitely an interesting feature of the Malnad scenery. The Gersoppa or the Jog Falls of Karnataka is world famous. The Govardhanagiri range of hills is eighteen miles east of Honnawar. From the base of the falls to the top on either side it is 1, feet high. The site where the great hydro-electric power is generated challenges the modern mechanical power with their natural splendour.

The Sbaravati rises in the Western Ghats at Ambulhirta in Shimoga district, and flows north for the first 48 miles Then turning towards the west, the nver runs for ten miles and plunges vertically feet at Jog. Years ago. Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India, is reported to have turned down a proposal to harness the Sharavati as it woufd aflcci the beauty of the faffs.

The Sharavati Valley Project is designed these days to meet the ever-growing demand for power in this region. The splendid view of the Sharavati Falls, as one reaches closer the scene, through a densely wooded scenery, is one of the grandest sights in the whole of India. This is called the Jog Falls from the neighbouring villagejog. The breadth of the river above is feet and it hurls itself over a cliff of feet high. The best time to see the falls Is December. A great volume of water sweeps in a smooth and graceful curve in an unbroken sheet until it is lost in clouds of spray before reaching the base.

It is said that in the year , one of the crags at the edge of the cliff gave way and as it fell, carried with it an outstanding ledge of rock with a noise that startled the area for miles. It stumbles down a steep channel and is caught in a basin and the two streams rage along a tugged gorge along a huge mass of rock and then slipping down they hide in clouds of spray. The Rocket is a cascade of extreme beauty and it falls right about feet down, throwing off brilliant jets of foam and spray like falling stars and to its left is Rani, gliding quietly over the edge of the cHfT and this white lady falls less violently over the face of the cliff.

This water-fall eclipses every other fall in India and has few rivals in the world in its volume of water. The land between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas svas called the Aryavarta. A hymn in the Rig- Veda says that one expelled from the Aryan fold walked towards the South and this was popularly known as Dalshina Paada. Naala may probably be the Dravidian word Koad. Tbc scriptures say that Vishwamiira condemned his fifty sons who did not like Sunashepa Devarata living on the borders of the Aryavarta.

Sahadeva of ilahabharata is said to have subdued Fanduas, Dravidas, Keratas and others. He is also said to have visited Daodaka, Karahataka or the modern Karhad and Kisbklndba. All the land between Bidar in the North and Bangalore district in the South are sprinkled with holy memories. This land of Karnataka is rich in legends and anecdotes of abiding interest. The sacred rivers Kaveri, Krishna, Tungabhadra and others flow through this State and many places on their banks are associated with numerous legends and interesting stories.

The whole of Karnataka is saturated with the stories of their heroic and dynamic deeds of adventure and conquest. It is a fact that the prince of Ayodbya passed in his ezpedition to Lanka through Kisbkinda in Karnataka. Sugriva sent his followers from there to different quarters in search of Stta. In Maliabharata Agastya is represented to have given a girl he produced by his miraculous powers, to the king of Vidarbha. This ancient kingdom of Mahabharala times is Bjdar of today. This place is associated with the story of Nala, the king of Vidarbha, and Damayanti who was the cynosure of even the celestial beings.

Damayanti was the daughter of the king of Bidar. Rukmini, the spouse of Lord Krishna was a Vidarbhi. Her brother Rukma was the ruler of Vidarbha. The Axireya Brahamana mentions the kingdom of Vidarbha and its king Bhima. The Vaidarbhi style in Sanskrit for which Kalidasa and Vijjtka were famed, was evolved here. It is also believed that this is the home of Mitakshara, the great law-giver. Gulbarga is one of the holiest of the districts and it has inherited an unrivalled tradition of spiritual glory.

Although the cultural life of the region has been inhuenced by foreign elements in the recent past, the' district of Gulbarga is replete with ancient Indian traditions. The Sbarana Basavesbwara temple attracts a number of pilgrims annually. The dlstsict Ralehur Is not, less vn impostance. In Mahahharala Agastya is represented to have given a girl he produced by his miraculous powers, to the king of Vidarbha. This place is associated with the story of Nala, the king of Vidarbha, and Damayanti who was the cynosure of even the celestial beings Damayanti was the daughter of the king of Bidar.

The Vaidarbhi style in Sanskrit for which Kalidasa and Vljjika were famed, was evolved here. It is also believed that this is the home of Mitakshara, the great law'giver. This is the place of Jayathirta the celebrated commentator on Madhava's teachings. Although the cultural life of the region has been influenced by foreign elements in the recent past, the' district of Gulbarga is replete with aocient Indian traditions The Sharana Basaveshwara temple attracts a number of pilgrims annually.

The district of Raicbor is not less in importance. Dhulkcd on the river Bblma is the scene of the great sacrifice oiTered by Shiva's father-in-law, Dakaha Prajapati. The Kalammeshwara temple at Hippargi is said to have been built by Jamadagni. The two demons, Ilwal and Aravalli and Vatap! The names of these demons appear to be purely un-Sanskritic.

The name.. The Velugrama or Belgaum district in the North runs parallel to the SabyadrI hill, and the country round about is hilly. There are numerous legends associated with Athni, Ramadurg and Sangli and many of the hilly tracts around are said to have been chosen by the gods of yore for performing great miracles The district can, therefore, be rightly called the mother of great rivers and hills The Pandavas wandered all over these regions of Karnataka up to the Narmada which land later on became world famous on account of caves of Ajanta and Ellora.

It is said that the Pandavas built the massive hill- fort at Devagiri. The Surpanatb bill near Kannad a was a great and hallowed spot of the olden days. The Ajanta Partala rises abruptly with a sublime scenic effect over the river bed where the Tungabhadra runs most picturesquely between the chains of rocky hills. These ancient regions are situated in the present Raiebur district, the Kishkin- dha of the Ramayana.

Malayavanta, Matanga and Rishyamukha arc admirably situated in their proper places as mentioned in the Ramayana. Rishyamukha is the seat of Sugriva's sanctuary in a hill at Raichur. The Matanga and Malayavanta hills are the places where Sri Rama camped. In these places are seen the living foot-prints of the past, right from the Stone Age, North Kanara district was and still is the Malnad region of the Puranas.

In the great epics, this is mentioned as the Sahyadri Kanda- The stories dealing with Parasurama who drove back the Arabian Sea, Babruvahana who fought with Arjuna, the sage Vibhandaka and Risyhyasringa who did penance here and the demon king Ravana who alighted here on his return flight. Sri Rama is said to have stayed at the Kavla caves near Dandeli during his long exile Illuri is the birth place of the Jain saint Basaveshwara. Gokarna is a significant Kehelra in India. It is one of the three holy places of the country, the other two are the Ramasetu and Kashi.

Ravana wanted to win over the gods and, therefore, he tried to acquire strength by procuring Prano Linga. At Gangavadi there is a temple of Ganga. On the Gangashtami day all devotees assemble to bathe in the river and the Maha- baleshwara image is also brought here from Gokarna for bathing. Gersoppa is a holy place and many ruinous temples of Mahavira and other Jain gods arc seen scattered all over there. Of South Kanaia district, it is said, that one Rama Bhoja acquired the land from Parasurama after several Yajnas and he was called Tulu-Deshndhtpati, According to Kcraloipathi, Parasurama, the great Brahmin sage and warrior of the race of Bhrigu, the greatest of the Riaftw, created this land stretching from Kanyakumari to Gokarna The Kanara districts were known as Bhargava Naadii.

The land between the Cape and Gokarna were divided into four parts and the first portion from the North was called Tulu Kandatn These Tuluva and Haiga areas, it is stated, were created by Parasurama by reclaiming from the sea as much land as he could cover by throwing his axe from the top of the Western Ghats.

Dwadasa jyotirlinga

Hanuman is the most popular deity in this region. Alampur, originally known as Bala-Brahmeshwara after the main cluster of Nava-Brahma temples, is in Raichur. The Tungabhadra takes a turn here to the North. There is a wealth of attraction here, for a student of mythology and architecture. Katavirapura or Kolhapur was ruled by one Srigala Vasudeva. Sarttamsa describes how Krishna and Balarama went to Karavirapura near the river Vena in order to escape from Jarasandha. There arc two inscriptions which go back to the times of Yudbistira. According to the Puranas, U was in a nearby hill of Kaivara that Bhlma killed the giant Bakasura The traditional history of Dbarwar goes back to the times of the Pandavas Hanagal is called Viratkote or Viratanagari, the fort city of king Virata where the Pandavas lived during their exile.

It is also called Maisyapuri, and Trigarta of king Susharma was to the south of it i c , according to Vtrala Pana Hubli, Gadag, Kundagol and other places have interesting tales to say of the days of yore. Hubli was known as lloo BaUt or Poo-Balh which means the flower creepers. Bellary is according to tradition, the corrupted form of Bala-RoTt, meaning the defeat of Bala, a demon of the place.

He was slain by Indra because he harassed Deia Kanyalas or the damsels of DeiahLa- The prc-hisioric age gives interesting account of Anegondi which was the ancient Kishkindha of Vali. Kartaviryarjuna was slam, it is said, near Kolahalapur. It is said that the Moon God performed penance here to propitiate Lord Shiva who manifested himself at the spot where the temple is now situated.

It is said that it was accidentally brought to Malpe by a country boat. At Kadri there are big rock cut caves supposed to have been inhabited by the Pandavas, At Kakunje near Mangalore is found a big stone which is said to have been used by the Pandavas. Moodbidri is called the Jain Kashi of India and it abounds in JainBoadts of architectural beauty and wealth. Dharmasibala, a place about forty miles from Mangalore, bas been given considerable sanctity because of the belief that many persons have obtained salvation there.

Tbe main deity of the place is Lord Manjunatha. The legend says that the god of Dharroa appeared before the founder of the Kshetra in a dream and told him to make the place a holy spot and from that day it was called Dharmasthala and it has a reputation for charity. The Pandavas are said to have spent a part of their exile in the Shlmoga region The Bhimanakatte Mutt at ThirthalU owns a grant made by the king Janamejaya. In addition to the association of Janamejaya with this place, a pillar with an inscription in Brahmi script testifies to the existence of the Vedic religion in these parts.

Remote from the worldly strife and seated in the heart of Nature in all her true glory and majesty, stands Sringeri or Rvshyastingagiri, the spot hallowed for all times by the footsteps of the sage Rishyasringa and in the recent past, of Sri Sankara- charya, the great master. The name Mahishapur or Mysore claims a legendery antiquity as the place where Mahishasura was vanquished by goddess Ghamundeshwari Mahisharaandala mentioned in the MahaWiarata and the Buddhist works of the later times have been identified with Mahishmad on the Narmada according to some scholars.

A chief, Erumairan by name, was said to have been ruling round about Mysore, the Nilgirics and other places. Mysore city attracts once a year large crowds during the Navaratri festivals This festival is the longest Hindu festival and Daaara means Dasa Ralri or ten nights. The genesis of the festival signifies the celebration of the triumph of good over evil The ruling family of Mysore has preserved the ceremonial character of the festival handed down by the imperial rulers of Vijayanagara kingdom of the sixteenth century.

The car festival at Haropi which is even now continued in the same grand manner as in olden days. These were some of the national festivals of the ancient kingdoms. Stvasamudram has been described in legends as Madhya Rangam of the three Arangams. The river Kaveri in its long journey through Mysore and Tamil nad, splits to join again at three places thus forming three islands. Each one of them has a Vaishnavite temple on it and it is called Arangams The first one is.

Melukote has traditional connections with Rcnnayana and MahaWiarata It has been mcmiooed. The city named Manipura, now Haralukote, is in the south-east of Chamarajanagar. Arjuna is claimed to have married princess Chitrangada from this place. Srirangapaina is situated in Mandya district. The place is formed by the two branches of the Kavcri and the island is marked by Nature to play the role of a fortress.

Legends take its antiquity back to the days of Gautama, a revered sage of yore. Sage Kanwa of Kalidasa's Skaiunlala meditated on the hanks of the river Kamva, near Malur, Similarly Bangalore district has several interesting legendary stories and there are many temples that speak the glory of several places here.

The story of Agastya who was hunted by Vatapi and llwala, the demon brothers, is associated with Nelamangala of this district. Thus almost all the places have mythological origin, and therefore, U would be appropriate to give here one of the stories. The river Kaveri is commonly called the Ganga of the South.

This takes its birth on the Brahmagiri hills of the Western Ghats. Southern Karnataka is proud of this river as she serves with her holy waters the entire South throughout her long course of nearly five-hundred miles. Certain slokas in the Vedas refer to the holy Kavcri. The Kaveri Purana ts a portion of Slanda Parana. As the Kavcri and Kanika join together at Bbagamandala, it is said, that the invisible river Snjyoti also joins them ibere at ibc Saiijorn and this looks as if an imitation of the talc of invisible river Saraswati in North India ioining the Ganga and the Yamuna at Prayag.

The story goes on to say that the Suras and the Asuras quarrelled over the Amnlum oi the Drink of Immortality. Bishi Kavera was in the Brahmagiri hills and because he was childless got Lopamudra from Brahma and called her Kaveri She was loved by Sage Agastya who married her but after some time Kaveri flowed in the form of water and thereafter she made a vow to purify the world by her holy waters.

May the waters of all fourteen thousand rivers be mingled in my stream Let the wanderer who bathes in my waters be as though he had bathed in all the rivers and performed all the sacriflees Let the land round my banks laugh , let me bring riches to the people , and may those who perform ceremonies with my waters obtain eternal bliss May the sins of those be forgiven who think upon my name and who look upon my stream.

If thou will cause these things to come to pass. I will be thy wife. In this pot I carry the waters of Ganga and of the fourteen thousand rivers A part of thee as Kaveri shall enter this pot and thou Lopamudra shall be my wife and we shall journey together to Sabyadri. Almost all the rivers of Karnataka have a mythological origin and interest- ing stories have been coined about the birth and sanctity of all these rivers.

Ancient writers said that this state is a country, south of Sumeru Mcru , through which flowed the Kaveri. Kuntala Desha in Karnataka was an ornament to Bharata Varsha being the best and most beautiful of all lands. This state was compared to the curls of Xady Earth with Sahya moutains on her breast adorned with shining garland and the Tunga on which shine Sphaiiha and other holy waters.

The traces of existence of the neolithic men are found in diflcrcnt parts of the Tamil area. In this respect South India is an ethnological museum. There has been a thorough mixture of races of different parts. The process of the inevitable fusion between tbe pre-Aryan and Aryan cultures in South India took place long back and that became complete by about B. In tbe Miocene Age it was found that the northern parts of the Deccan inhabited by the Neandertbaloid man who used irapleroems of latcrite and the Vindhya sand stones.

In the Paleolithic Age the Negroid peoples migrated from South Africa and settled in some parts of the Dcccan plateau. The quartzite stone implements like sling stones, fishing net weights, arrow heads, knives etc. Stone implements are abundantly found in some of the caves. As time passed on people adjusted to a stage of hunting from that of the food gathering and then gradually they passed on to the pastoral and agricultural stages. Copper, bronze and iron implements and vessels seem to have been given place to gold ornaments and golden tools of the proto-Indian civilization of Harappa and Mohenjadaro.

The paintings found in the caves of Bellary, Magadi, Singanpur etc , can be compared with the cave paintings of the European countries. The chrys-elephantine pottery discovered at Bangalore, ChandravaUi and Kolhapur showed affinities to the Babylonian funerary ware. There is what is called a polished axe culture of Karnataka in its southern extension The polished and pointed but axe culture is said to have been in existence in the heart of the peninsula at Bellary.

This is the characteristic feature of the South Indian neolithic culture.

Vaitheeswaran Koil -Nadi Jothidam, And the Temple's Astrological Significance - Jothishi

A burnished grey-ware and a limited use of copper were the other features of this Karnataka axe culture and this is nn evidence of the human achievements in the hoary past. Many regions of those days are particularly interesting and in that the Deccan trap area revealed a far-ilung Chalcoltthic Neolithic culture extending from Ahar in Rajastan to Brahmagiri on the Tungabhadra. This seems to have bridged the gap between the proto-neolithic phase of the Indus valley civilization and the dawn of the early historical cultures. MasVi on the Krishna and Sanganakallu and Brahmagiri on the Tungabhadra and many sites in between these places characterise a culture of red painted pottery and a limited use of copper with Harappan and West African afhnities.

The rocks of South India belong to the Archcan era consisting of scries of granites and gneisses massed in a jumble. The geologists of Karnataka believe that Dharuar period was characterised by a tremendous out pouring of basic lava followed by acidic lava. In many parts of Karnataka ore deposits of gold, manganese, iron, copper and lead are found. The Kolar Gold Fields alone produce more than O. OCO Copper and brass cups and pots of new stone age have been also discovered. Historians cite evidence for the existence of trade relationship beiueen Bangalore area and the Romans.

It is surprising that about Roman coins should have been unearthed in a pot near Yesavantapura, a close suburb of Bangalore city. A majority of coins range in date from about 21 B C to 51 A. D and the coins belong to the times of Augustus, Tiberius and Claudius, This reveals a close commercial contact between Indian peninsula and Rome in those days. Also some antiquities have been recovered from the ancient site of Tarabanahalli near Bangalore. The objects recovered from this place consist of the characteristic pottery attributed to the first century A D.

Mahadwara Banavasi , Malpl, Bbatkal and Kalyan ports were famous in those times. In the Mohenja- daro records, there is a reference to a nation called Kannamr and Dr. There has been a good deal of controversy about the Dravidian elements in our country among the ethnologists. It is asserted that the people of Mohenjadaro were the Dravidians. But the Dravidian language they spoke was far different from the language of to day or of the Dravidian language of about one thousand years back. There seems to have been a keener contact between Mohenjadaro and Dakshinapatha.

The Ghalcolilhic period was a common feature in the North and the South The green stone that was required for the making of the beautiful cup, the one that was discovered at Mohenjadaro, was taken from Mysore. Sir John Marshall points out that the images of the three-faced Shiva arc found in many places in India including a place near the Gokak Falls in Bclgaum. The Deccan is reputed to be a land of " evasive mysteries". The exact origin of the early inhabitants is quite unknown.

So far as the history of this area Is concerned, it is evident that the earliest people who visited North India from North Russia and the Tunisian regions were the Dravidians who spoke Kannada, Telugu and Marathi respectively. These immigrants gradually shifted one after the other from the northern regions and settled in the Deccan There are curious theories of the people in the Peninsula Scholars in ethnology believe m the existence of the Dravidians as group of peoples coming into South India from the north- west, perhaps from their original home in the Mediterranean regions One group was the Alpine stock, another European group was the Nordic and the third was the Mediterranean race.

The anthropologists thmk that the Indians must have belonged to one of these. Even lo these days of uncertain realities, the earlier culture continuously flowed with the march of lime The Megalilhic structures like the dolmens, menhirs and ring stones are asso- ciated with the helioltthic culture in the later neolithic times. On the language that existed before the fourth century A.

On the history of the pre-Brahminic period, the Hindu legends relate that in B. C , three brothers all of whom spoke Tamil, founded separate kingdoms: The Pandya kingdom in the extreme South, the Chola in the North east and the Chera in the North and North-west. The archaeological remains bear Witness to a series of dynasties of which the most important was the Pandya who was constantly at war with the Cholas.

When South India becomes familiar to the known history of the past, a great Brahmin dynasty of the Saiavahanas ruled over a great part of India, including the Andhra area The Ikshvakus in the Krishna valley and the Pallavas in the further South were pushed down by the Satavahanas. The historical period of the Tamil speaking people begins from the fourth century A. However, this part of the early history up to the end of the Sangama Age in the third century A.

The existence of the Chera Keralapuira , Chola and the Pandya monarchies is known from the second and the thirteenth rock edicts of Asoka. The Buddhist chronicles of Ceylon say that Madura was the capital of the Pandya kingdom. References to the com- mercial relations existing between the Pandyas and the Romans were confirmed by' the findings of the Roman coins in South India. This Pandya kingdom was in power in some parts till the elctcnth century.

Their capital was Kanchipuram. They ruled till the scv'cntecnth century in some parts of the Deccan. The maritime connections with the people of Egypt, Baby Ionia, Palestine etc. Chinese coins were also found in many places here. A Chinese brass coin of Emperor Han-wai-ti of China of about the same date was found in Ghandravalli.

There is no historic document prior to Asoka. From the time of the Kalinga war of B. C till about the sixth century A D , there are hardly any correct documents for a historian to consult The edicts of Siddapura near Molalal- muru, prove that South India had a special alphabet which Mr. Koppala, Kondapura, Paitana, Kolhapura and Cbandravalli were the few towns of the times of the Mauryas It is believed that they ruled till the seventh century in the Konkan and then they led an expedition as far as the Tirupati bills The Buddhism introduced by Asoka at Bariavasi, Karwar and other places continued to exist till about the tenth century The Bhagavatha, Maisya and Vaayu Puranas mention the names of Chandragupia Mautya and Gotamiputra of Satakarni dynasty.

The copper plate grants up to about the eleventh century speak of this era as Sala. The of India. During the time of these Satavahanas, Kundakundacharya was preaching Jainism throughout India The Amaravati sculptural works and other paintings were started during this time. During the first century A. In about 15Q A. The coastal districts were famous for pepper, spices, sandalwood, betelnut, rice and other products. The fine muslin and painted cloths of Dharwar and Belgaum were the chief articles of the earliest records of the Indian trade.

These records go back to the times of Solomon, and the great Fhonecian traders of about B. C Records of B C. From the Jain versions of the Ramayana, one gathers that trade had cemered at Honnawar and this name finds a place in the Greek writings also.

The articles exported were pepper, pearls, muslin cloth and sandalwood and those imported were white glass, tin, brass, wine etc. The early history of Kanara districts begins from B C. The coast land has been a disputed area from the early times It was at one time a part of Kerala. To the south of Gokarna there were Kannada speaking people and the word Kerala meant only the coastal area where cocoanuts are abundantly grown or seen. Here the coins of the time of the Saiavahanas were discovered. The discoveries in Maski included a miniature head of the Buddha in crystal of about B.

The Satavahana coins relate to Gotamiputra Satakarni of A D A great anicut conststing of solid mass of stones over 1, feet in length, forty to sixty feet in width and fifteen to eighteen feet in height stretching across the whole of the river Kaveri was probalily constructed in the centuries before the Chrisiian era Kankala Chola buih cnibankmcms to the river so as to utilise us waters for irrigation purposes Such works were not uncommon The charming pearl lake of Melukote IS fed by two mountain streams whose waters are damned by an embankment believed to hate been constructed about years ago.

Samudragupta who died in A D, had an ambition to conquer all India, and therefore, went as far as Kanchi He led an expedition towards some parts of Karnataka and then rctutned. D After that for about one hundred years, it is supposed that the Kshatrapas had held the land for some time till the coming of the early Chalukyas in the fifth ceatury.

Mayurasarma ruled over this part. Bellary was a part of the Maurya empire and that is revealed by the rock edicts of Asoka of B. Ucheshringi in Harapanahalli was their chief town. A battle was fought here in the fourth century between the Kadambas and the Pallavas according to an Anaji inscrip- tion.

The Kadambas were in power there till about A D. From the history of this part of the State, the coming of the Alupas to power from A. They were Saivas. Thus the Jains had spread all over, with the Satavahaoa sway In many parts of Karnataka. Kakutsavarma was a great king and he was wellknown throughout India in the fifth century. He patronised a Sanskrit poet Kubja. The Halmidi inscriptions are his earliest dated records in Kannada. After Kakutsa, the Kadamba kingdom was split into branches. The eastern branch was supported by the Pallavas. Ravivarma Kadamba had ruled as far as the Narmada, Kuntala, Paligere etc.

In his reign the Kadambas lost the northern half of their empire. The Kadambas of Goa A. The oldest place there is Palasige or Halsi There are some Kadamba plates recording grants of the village lands. There is a record on the wall of a building at a Jain temple at Halsi. Permade, son of Jayakesi, had the title of Slayer of Malwas or the Sahyadri tribes.

He ruled from his capital Goa His successor Jayakesi HI had the title of hill-men slayer or Malnara Mart The genealogy of the Kadamba kings differ from that of the Tagare plates The Talgunda inscription SK gives an account of the Kadamba family It is said that Mayurasarma was the first king and Kongavarma, the second. But some records begin with the names of Krishnavarma and Ajavarma. The people called the Gangadhtkaras formed a large section of the agricultural population.

They ruled the greater part of Karnataka from the second century till about the eleventh century.

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In the beginning Kolar or Kuvalala was the chief city of the Gangas After some time their capital was shifted to Talakad on the Kaveri in the South of Mysore. A Jain Acharya Simhanandi who was in Perur Gudapab district helped them to be the masters of a vast area of land. This kingdom of Gangavadi was an extensive territory and the capital of Kuvalala and Nandagin or Nandidurg were its strong-hold. D The Madiken Treasury plate of about A. The Nagar and Shimoga Inscriptions also give the details of the Ganga family.

But the above accounts differ from what is given in the Penukonda plates The donor of these plates is mentioned as the father of Avinitha, the fifth king of the line. Dhruvanitha seemed to have reigned for a long time for over forty years just like his father Avinitha. Its capital was Kirtipura on the Kapini in Heggadadevanakote taluk. The Ganga king Skanda- varma was the ruler there and be gave his daughter in marriage to Avinitha Ganga. The Ganga dynasty established at Talakad in the fourth century was split into two branches From Talakad the Ganga king Kongnivarma waged wars with the Pallavas His son Madhava was a clever politician and the author of DaUala Sulra.

He was a contemporary of Paltava Sioihavarma. During the time of the Gangas the word Nadu was used for Rastra Their capital was Kuvalala, Talakadu and Manne Alter the fah ol the Kadamhas the Gangas busied them- selves in annexing terraories. They were at the heights of their glory and prosperity during the long reign of Sripurusha. In his time the Rattas rose against Gangavadi. Rachamalla Battunga and Rachamalla Satyavakya were some of the Ganga kings with some achievements to their credit. Madhava I 42j A D. D Simhavarma A D. Avinitha A D. Another version of iheir genealogy is as given below: Avinitha Durvinitha Sivamara Sripurusba RachaniaUa Bhufunga Marasimha Rachamallall These Ganga rulers serving under the Rastrakutas during their long period of existence belonged tb a very significant ruling dynasty.

Nothing is known so far about their administ- ration or other activities They were ardent Jains Many Jain Basdis were built by the devoted rulers of this class However, in the eleventh century, the Ganga territory was completely merged with the Ghola kingdom Even after the fall of the Ganga power the remnants of their dynasty were to be found in some parts of the country.

The last Ganga chief was the Raja of Ummathur who fortified himself on the island of Sivasamudram at the Kaveri Falls in the sixteenth century. Eater on he was put down by the Vijayanagar emperors in 15H A. Their principal centre was Vengt. The Pallava inscriptions are found in many places extending as far as Tiruchi. The ancient Mahabalipuram writings arc by the Pallavas. The earliest mention of the Pallavas in Karnataka is found in the Shikaripur and Davangcre inscriptions.


They are said to have been originally the feuda- tories of the Satavahanas. They later on migrated eastwards and captured Kanchipuram. Many parts of the Deccan from the west coast ta. From the Hatsi plates in Delgaum, it appeared that the early Kadambas of Banavasi, dispossessed the Pallavas, the lords of Kanchi who also had a capital at Vatapi or Badami. It was from Badami the Pallavas went to Kanchi after being finally expelled from there by the Chalukyas. The origin of the Pallavas is obscure.

Their earliest medium of expression was the Prakrit language and at the same time they were great patrons of Sanskrit language also. There ts some anthropological connection between the Pallavas and- the Kurubas even though the latter continued to be a separate tribe subject to the Pallava rule.

In the reign of Aparijata there was a man with a surname Kurubaradityam which means, the Sun of the Kurubas. In A. Samudragupta left his capital at Pataliputra and marched directly towards the South. He conquered southern Kosala. He met the kings of Ranchi, Vengi, Palaka etc. Thereafter, he abandoned his campaign. According to Ganga records, there was a close relationship between the Pallavas and the Gangas, The Penukonda plate says that the Ganga chief Aryavarman was duly installed on the throne by the Pallava king Simhavarma.

The Pallava influence in Karnataka was strictly limited to the northern parts Karnataka was then ruled by three differ'' ent chiefs in the fifth century. It is on record that Mayuravarma Kadamba defeated the Pallavas and became the king of Prehara near river Krishna. D they sufFered defeat at the hands of the western Ghalukyas The Pallavas, the Kadambas and the Abhiras were then the subordinates of the Satahavanas who had just become extinct from the political scene of Karnataka. Another epigraph in the same place dated mentions the chief Narapermaladeva who appears to have taken an active part in the war by the Chalukyas against the Cholas and the defeat of Rajadhiraja.

It also introduces Nagavarmarasa, a Kadamba feudatory of the king, and indicates the penetration of the Kadambas, who originally belonged to Banavasi, as far as Raichur in the North. The contact of the west coast with the Vishakapatna region in those days is shown by a Tamil inscription at Ravada in Visbaka- patna which records a gift of gold to mainiain a lamp in the local temple etc. The Pallava territory was not very extensive in Karnataka area.

In Bellary they bad established a province in about the seventh century. The Pallava rulers were very learned and highly cultured. Their emblem was the bull and fish was the emblem of the Pandyas. The Cholas bad a tiger as their symbol, the Chcras the bow, the Chalukyas the boar and the Fallavas of Andhra bad the lion as their emblem.

These Fallavas gave impetus to fine arts and literature. Jayasimha is the first known chief who defeated Indra of the Rastrakuta dynasty and proceeded further South to fight with Trilocbana Pallava of Kancbi. The Cbalukya kings of Badami, nine in number, ruled the whole of Karnataka for over years with pomp and glory. The genealogy of the Badami Ghalukyas is given below. Jayasimha PuHkesi I A. Pulikesi I educed Banavasi, the capita] of the early Kadatnbas With the advent oftbeChalukyas, aglorious chapter in the history of Karnataka begins.

He also built a fort at Badami. Puhkesi's son Kirtivarma 1 defeated the kings of Banavasi. Then he, with his brother Mangalesa who was a powerful king, won the Gangas, the Alupas, the Haihayas and the Kalachuris of the North. Mangalesa tried to install his son on the throne after him by ignoring the claim of his nephew Pulikesi II. This led to the outbreak of a civil war between the parties in which Mangalesa lost his hfe in A. The third Vaishnava cave at Badami wm got up by Mangalesa.

He defeated the Gangas, the Kadambas and the Pallavas. He had a big naval power. He bombarded the coast of Bombay with hundreds of ships. He captured Puri and then effected the conquest Vcngi in A. The most adventurous of his conquests was the defeat of Emperor Harsha on the banks of the Narmada. This victory extended the Chalukya territory from the Narmada to the whole of the South.

These successful events carried his fame far beyond the borders of India. He established his brothers in Gujrat and Andhra. According to legend, Mars also known as Angaraka was suffering from leprosy and it was the blessings from the Lord Vaidyanatheshwara which cured him. Navagraha Temple has been the name of the location since then. Then, Lord Shiva transformed as Vaitheeswaran and healed their injuries. When Sita was abducted by Ravana, the Vulture king Jatayu was killed in the fight.

So, Rama and Lakshama buried him at this temple. Therefore, Jatayu kundam is the name of a pond located at this temple. The name in itself points out to one of the nine Navagrahas, the nine planets, Mars Angaraka. And so, the temple has a shrine dedicated to Angaraka. The village in itself is famous across the world for Vaitheeswaran koil astrology.

According to Nadi Jothidam Nadi astrology , ancient Siddhas perfected beings, Rishis compiled life events for the future generations in palm manuscripts. This was so that these generations could access it eventually and learn about themselves, straight from the Siddhas. Many interpret their current life occurrences through the lens of the different deeds done in any of their past lives. They learn of past lives by obtaining the correct manuscript that matches their identity. Some of the lucky people who check their nadi readings, chance upon an ancient manuscript which correctly matches their identity.

The match for a nadi and an individual occurs when factors like date, star of birth, name of mother and father, your age when you visit the nadi reader, and so on, all match with the details on the manuscript. Once you have a nadi manuscript that matches your identity, your nadi astrologer or reader will help you with predictions for the future and readings about past lives. People travel thousands of kilometers praying for a cure from several body ailments, pimples, and scars.

It is the deity Thaiyalnayaki, who carries medicinal oil which her lord, Shiva, uses to cure Mars Angaraka of leprosy. The western tower houses the Shiva Lingam. For a few days, every year, the sun rays fall directly on the Lingam. The temple contains inscriptions of King Vikrama Chola from the 12th century. Also, it consists of inscriptions of the Nayaks in the 16th century and the Marathas in the 18th century are also present. There is a shrine of Thaiyalnayaki, which holds the medicinal oil that cures the diseases of the devotees, present in the second enclosure which faces the south.

So, the southern gateway of temple directly faces the Thaiyalnayaki shrine. Housing several significant deities in shrines, the Vaitheeswaran temple is a large place of worship. Lord Shiva is in the form of the swayambhu murti, the revered deity. At the site, you can find several small temples dedicated to Goddess Durga, Lord Subrahmanya, Angaraka, the Sun god, and most importantly, the Navagrahas as well.

Jatayu kund , a holy pond is located at the temple. So you can commute to the temple in a bus or car. Also, you can directly reach the temple located in Nagapattinam from Chennai by train. Thousands of people travel to Vaitheeswaran Koil every year as they believe that all their diseases have a cure at this unique place of worship. Astrology and Nadi Jothidam is another big crowd puller, and many visitors to this temple town always make it a point to check if they have any astrology readings available for them. Temples of India.

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